Karat - See Carat
Lode - An underground vein bearing gold or other precious metal.
Long Tom - A long rocker with riffles in the bottom to separate gold from sand and gravel. It took at least two men to keep the placers and water flowing through the box.
Lynching - Putting an alleged criminal to death by hanging by means of mob action without due process of law. Popular form of justice during the California Gold Rush before traditional law and order was established. (See Old Hangtown)
Mercury - See Quicksilver
Metallurgy - The science of separating metals from their ores and preparing them for use by refining, etc., developed from alchemy of the Middle Ages.