1861 ~ 1893
~ 1861 ~
SUMMER 1861 ~ Samuel Clemens, aka Mark Twain, arrives in the West for a four-year stay, writing some of the best Gold Country stories ever written. He traveled here with his brother, Orion, who had been appointed governor of the Nevada Territory.
~ 1862 ~
WINTER 1862 ~ Fierce storms bring terrible flooding that damages river communities and illustrates how hydraulic mining chokes the river beds.
~ 1864 ~
DURING 1864 ~ Mark Twain visits friends in Angels Camp, where he is told the story about a frog jumping contest that was lost when someone fed buckshot into one of the famed croakers. The story becomes the basis for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County.
~ 1872 ~
DURING 1872 ~ The California Legislature appropriates a small pension to be paid to James Marshall in recognition of his contribution to the State.
~ 1876 ~
MAY 15, 1876 ~ John "Snowshoe" Thompson dies in Nevada at age 49 and is buried at Genoa.
~ 1877 ~
AUGUST 1877 ~ Black Bart begins his successful career as an outlaw as he robs his first stage.
~ 1878 ~
JUNE 22, 1878 ~ Arthur Thompson, the only son of John "Snowshoe" Thompson, dies at age 11 and is buried beside his father in Genoa, Nevada.
~ 1879 ~
SEPTEMBER 9, 1879 ~ Elanor Dumont, "Madame Moustache", the "Blackjack Queen of the Northern Mines", commits suicide in the rowdy town of Bodie.
~ 1880 ~
JUNE 18, 1880 ~ John Sutter dies in Pennsylvania, a poor man who spent his last years trying to convince Congress to reimburse him for his severe financial losses brought on by the Gold Rush.
~ 1883 ~
NOVEMBER 3, 1883 ~ Beginning of the end for Black Bart. During a stage robbery, he is wounded and leaves behind a handkerchief that is traced to his home and results in his capture, trial, and imprisonment.
~ 1884 ~
JANUARY 23, 1884 ~ The Sawyer Decision, following passage of the Anti-Debris Act of 1883, closes all the hydraulic mines in California.
~ 1885 ~
AUGUST 10, 1885 ~ James Marshall dies in Kelsey, a lonely and bitter man who never benefited from his fabulous gold discovery.
~ 1893 ~
SUMMER 1893 ~ The Caminetti Act allows hydraulic mines to open if debris dams are built to catch all of the silt before it can clog the rivers. Some attempt to meet this requirement, but the cost is too high, ending hydraulic mining permanently.
GOLD RUSH COUNTIES:
MARIPOSA | TUOLUMNE | CALAVERAS | AMADOR | EL DORADO | PLACER | NEVADA | SIERRA
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